Questions and answers about automotive basics

1.What is the basic structure of a car?
Answer: general and commonly used car is basic structure is to have 4 parts to compose, these 4 parts are: engine, chassis body and electric equipment part.
2.What parts make up a four-range gasoline engine?
A: the four-stroke gasoline engine is composed of engine block, crank connecting rod mechanism, valve mechanism cooling system, lubrication system, fuel system and ignition system (diesel engine has no ignition system).
3. How does the four-stroke gasoline engine work cycle?
Answer: the working process of engine divides intake, compress, work, exhaust 4 processes. A four-stroke engine does this by moving the piston up and down in four strokes. Intake stroke: the intake valve is opened and the exhaust valve is closed. As the piston moves from TDC to TDC, the volume above the piston increases and the pressure in the cylinder decreases, producing vacuum suction. Draw the gas mixture into the cylinder. Compression stroke: the inlet and exhaust valves are closed, and the piston moves from BDC to TDC, pressing the mixed gas into the combustion chamber. Working stroke: at the end of compression, the intake valve and exhaust valve are still closed, the spark plug sends out an electric spark, igniting the combustible mixture, the burning gas expands violently, generating huge pressure, forcing the piston down quickly, by connecting rod driving crankshaft rotation and working. Exhaust stroke: the exhaust valve opens, the intake valve closes, and the piston moves from BDC to TDC to remove the exhaust gas.
4. What are the main parts and functions of the body and the crank connecting rod mechanism?
Answer: the action of airframe and crank connecting rod mechanism is: when burning fuel in cylinder, the pressure of gas acting on the top of piston, with the help of the torque of connecting rod into crankshaft, make crankshaft drive working machinery to do work, the main parts of airframe and crank connecting rod mechanism are cylinder block, cylinder cover, piston, connecting rod, crank, flywheel and so on.
5. What is the function and composition of the valve mechanism?
Answer: the action of valve mechanism needs according to the job, open and close in time, exhaust door, in time but the introduction of gas cylinder and exhaust gas. At the same time, the drive distributor, gasoline pump and other parts of the work. The main parts of valve mechanism include: intake valve, exhaust valve, camshaft drive parts, etc.
6. Describe the action stage composition of the cooling system?
A: the function of the cooling system is to dissipate the heat of the high-temperature parts into the atmosphere to keep the engine operating at normal temperatures. The water cooling system is generally composed of engine water jacket, water pump, radiator, fan, thermostat, water thermometer and water release switch and other parts.
What is the normal temperature of the engine? How to control the water temperature?
A: the normal operating temperature of the water-cooled engine should be 80-90 degrees. The engine temperature to liberate the CA10B car as an example, according to the engine temperature, pull out (open) or push out (open and close) the shutter control handle in the cab, change the amount of air into the radiator, so as to adjust the engine temperature.
What is the function of lubricating oil?
Answer: lubricating oil role: lubrication of friction parts, reduce friction resistance, can reduce power consumption. Cooling effect: oil circulation flow, friction can be tropical go. Lower the temperature of the parts. Cleaning function: wash away the impurities on the surface of the machine parts to reduce wear. Sealing effect: the oil layer is kept between the piston and the cylinder wall to increase the tightness.
How to check the oil level of the engine?
Answer: check the oil level of the oil sump, should park the car in a relatively flat place, the engine stops running and after waiting for a few moments, the oil ruler is pulled out, wipe the oil on the surface, and then from the oil ruler nozzle inserted in the end, so as to judge the amount of oil.
Tell the normal oil pressure of gasoline engine and diesel engine.
Answer: observe the oil pressure gauge on the dashboard of the cab: the normal oil pressure of the gasoline engine is 200-500 kpa; The diesel engine is 600-1000 kpa. [page]
11. What kind of device does the carburetor have? What does it do?
Answer: carburetor structure can be divided into five devices: a: starting device; Idle gear; Medium load device; Full load device; Accelerators. The role of carburetor is: according to the needs of the engine in different circumstances, the gasoline gasification, and the air in proportion to a certain mixture of combustible mixture. Timely amount into the cylinder.
12. How does the diaphragm gas pump work?
A: oil absorption: when the CAM rotation eccentric jacking pump arm. Pull down the pump membrane, the spring is compressed, at this time the pump membrane above the volume increase, pressure reduction, suction, use oil valve closed, gasoline from the tank through the gasoline filter oil valve, into the pump room. Oil delivery: the CAM continues to rotate, after the rotation of the eccentric wheel, the total oil rocker arm spring pushed back, pump membrane spring pump membrane to the top, the gasoline pump chamber from the oil flash pressure to the carburetor float room.
What are the main components of a driveline? What does it do?
Answer: transmission system main clutch, transmission (and transfer), transmission shaft, universal joint, reducer, differential, half shaft components. The role of the transmission system: the engine output power to drive the wheels, driving the car.
What is the function of the clutch?
Answer: the function of the clutch is to make the power of the engine and transmission device smoothly combined or temporarily separated, so that the driver of the car for the start, stop, shift and other operations.
What is the function of the gearbox?
Answer: suitable for automobile driving resistance change, change drive wheel twist and speed. To set a car forward or backward. In neutral, the interruption of power transmission, so that the engine operation and the movement of the vehicle from.
What is the role of the differential?
Answer: when the car turns, the two sides of the vehicle in the same time by walking distance, the distance of the outer wheel movement is not large, so the planetary gear on the differential cross shaft is affected by the wheel resistance. In the revolution at the same time produce rotation, automatically increase the speed of the outside wheel, so that the outside wheel to speed up, the inner wheel slow and play a differential role. When it's a straight line. The differential doesn't work.
17. What tests should be paid attention to in the use of tires?
Answer: check the tyre wear, if the tyre wear is too much, the braking effect will be reduced (and road demi friction is reduced) when the braking distance is longer, high-speed driving is easy to burst, this kind of tyre should be replaced in time. Insufficient tire air pressure or uneven tire air pressure on the left and right sides will also cause the braking effect of jet lag, difficult steering or heavy steering, but also reduce the service life of the tire. When the load is heavy, the above consequences are more serious. Therefore, the tire air pressure should be timely inflated when insufficient. Left and right wheels should be selected with the same specification, type of tires, wear should be the same. Otherwise, the dynamic performance of the steering mechanism will be affected. Check whether the ground on the tire is broken, damaged or whether there are foreign bodies (such as nails) on the tread. When there is gravel between the two rear wheels, remove it in time.
18. What are the components of the steering system? How does it turn?
Answer: steering system is generally composed of steering control mechanism, steering gear and steering mechanism. When the steering wheel is turned, the steering shaft and worm move with it, rolling up and down in engagement with the worm, causing the steering rocker arm to swing and pushing the straight tie rod back and forth. So the rotation section to the steering kingpin as the center, driving side of the front wheel deflection, to control the purpose of vehicle steering.
19. What is front wheel alignment? What does it include?
Answer: to make car maintains stable straight line to run, turn deft, reduce the car in exercise the wear of tire and steering part, front wheel, turn kingpin, front axle the installation between 3 person has certain relative position, this is called 'front wheel is fixed'. It includes the front wheel camber, the front wheel camber, the steering knuckle kingpin camber and the steering knuckle main school camber.
What is the function of the hand brake?
Answer: the hand brake is a kind of don't slip when making the car park, under special circumstance, cooperate the foot to move to carry on the emergency brake or the brake device that the foot move out of order times use.
What are the components of a pneumatic brake? How does it work?
A: the pneumatic brake consists of brake pedal, air compressor, air pressure gauge, brake method, brake chamber, wheel brake, brake pipe, etc. When the brake pedal is stepped down, the brake valve opens the air storage cylinder to the passage of the brake air chamber, so that the compressed air in the air storage cylinder enters the brake air chamber through the brake valve, passes the motor parts, and pushes the brake shoe to open, so as to press the brake drum, so that the wheel has a braking effect.
What are the components of the hydraulic brake unit? How does it work?
Answer: the hydraulic brake device consists of brake pedal, brake master cylinder, brake wheel cylinder, wheel brake, brake roller, pipeline and so on. When the brake pedal is pressed, the piston pushes the main cylinder forward. The brake fluid in the cylinder is pressed, and the oil is pressed into each brake wheel cylinder through the oil pipe. At this time, the piston of the wheel cylinder opens outwards, pushing the brake shoe into contact with the brake drum to produce braking effect.
What does the battery do?
Answer: the function of accumulator is to supply engine to use electricity, engine. When the engine is running at low speed and the power is insufficient, power is used for lighting, audio equipment and ignition system. When the engine is running at high speed. A generator stores excess electrical energy when it is sufficient to produce electricity. The charge and discharge of the battery can be displayed by ammeter.
24. How to use and maintain the battery?
Answer: keep clean, take out dirt dirt and oxide in time. The battery wire and the battery connecting post should be installed firmly. The battery should be higher than the level of liquid junction do 10-15 mm. Deficiency should be added in time. Always check the specific gravity of the electrolyte. Generally, it should be kept between 1.220 and 1.260. Avoid violent discharge, such as starting time should not be too long.
What does the ignition system do?
Answer: the role of the ignition system: it is the battery or generator output of the bottom piezoelectric attractions ring into high piezoelectric, and then by the distributor according to the engine cylinder of the work order, take turns to match to spark plug caused jump fire, ignition mixture, make the engine run.
What is the function of the breaker?
A: the function of breakpoint gas is to connect and cut off the low-voltage circuit, and the pilot coils generate high-voltage current.
What are the main lights of the car?
Answer: headlight (include far light, near light), front light, rear light, license plate light, instrument light, turn signal, brake light, danger alarm flash, reverse light, front fog light, etc.
What is routine maintenance of a vehicle? Why should drivers do routine maintenance?
Answer: routine maintenance is the driver out of the car, driving, after the inspection, cleaning, fastening and add function. Things are changing all over the car. Parking will also occur when the failure of parts or damage. If cannot discover in time and eliminate these breakdown seriously, concern the life of travel safety, machine directly and fuel, lubricants are consumed. Therefore, must do the maintenance work earnestly.
29. What are the main items to check before driving?
Answer: the check item before driver gives a car: lubricating oil quantity, fuel quantity, cooling water, hand, foot brake device, horn sound, illume device, hang water implement, steering device, instrument, tire pressure, tire nut.
30. What are the main items to be checked during the driving?
A: while the car is in motion, the driver should check: a: check the operation of various dashboards in motion. Check whether the steering system is working normally. Check whether the function of the brake is normal. Check engine and chassis for noise and odour. Use stop time (average car runs 50 kilometers or so) the check that makes the following item: the brake drum that feels front and rear wheel is measured with the hand has without superheat phenomenon. Check the tightness of the tire and nut, and remove the sundries in the tire pattern. Check for oil leakage, water leakage and air leakage. Check that the leaf spring is broken and the connecting bolt of the drive shaft is loose. Check the bundling of the cargo, etc.
31. Which major items should be checked and maintained after receiving the vehicle?
A: check and replenish fuel oil and wetting oil. Clean the inside and outside of the vehicle, engine and chassis. In the severe winter season, such as the cooling system without adding antifreeze, should put the radiator cover and water switch, engine water switch are open, put the cooling water to do, and do a short time of the launch, the water will be clean, so as to avoid residual water freezing crack cylinder, radiator, air brake vehicle should put all the sewage in the gas cylinder. Turn off the switch and tighten the hand brake after flameout, check whether there is leakage phenomenon in the ammeter (the pointer points to one side). Check the horn, lamp, wiper. Check whether the leaf spring is broken, spring lifting lug, riding bolt is loose. Check the half-axle and tyre nut to see if the rims are intact. Check tires for cracks and air leaks.
What are the requirements for primary maintenance?
A: after the completion of the first level maintenance work, the car should be clean, solid connection, three filter unobstructed, no oil leakage, no water leakage, no air leakage, no electricity leakage.
33. What are the cleaning operations for primary maintenance of vehicles?
Answer: maintain clean job project: answer: clean car body and wipe engine, chassis part. Clean and maintain the air filter, clean the gasoline filter, release the sediment in the oil filter, turn the filter handle 3-4 times, clean the oil filter, and change the filter element according to the pollution degree. Oil and water deposits from the gas reservoir.
34. What are the primary maintenance and lubrication operations for vehicles?
A: check the oil level of the engine, gearbox, rear axle and steering gear, and add lubricating oil as required. All parts of the vehicle are equipped with complete and effective oil nozzles, and grease (water pump, rotating shaft and universal joint, steering knuckle, steering rod, etc.) is added according to the regulations.
35. What are the fastening operation items for primary maintenance inspection of vehicles?
Answer: check the fastening operation items: answer: check the steering gear, horizontal tie rod, system tie rod, each turn arm connection fastening situation. Check and adjust the tightness and fixation of air compressor, engine and fan belts. Check the brake method and brake pipe for air leakage, check the brake fluid level height of the hydraulic brake main cylinder, and add brake fluid as required. Check the free travel of adjusting clutch pedal and brake pedal, check whether the brake pedal fixed shaft and cotter pin are intact and reliable. Check and tighten the connection and bolts of all parts of the vehicle. Check the tire pressure and check the tire for damage. Check the battery shell, dredge the small cover vent hole, fill the electrolyte. Check whether lights, wiring and wiper switches are complete and intact. Whether the speaker volume tone is normal, all kinds of instruments work well.
What are the common faults in the oil circuit of gasoline engines?
Answer: the oil circuit fault that gas oil machine sees commonly is block commonly, leakage, bad wait for 3 kinds. Frequent failures include: the tank switch is not open or the tank bottom is too dirty, the tubing is blocked or the tank is empty. The filter screen of gasoline filter or carburetor inlet pipe joint is blocked or the pipe joint is loose. Gasoline pump failure or oil line gas resistance. The carburetor main oil channel is blocked or the triangle needle valve is stuck without oil.
37. Briefly describe how to check if the carburetor inlet pipe is filled with oil?
A: remove the carburetor from the connecting tubing and turn the engine by turning the oil handle of the oil pump with your hand or by turning the engine with the starter crank.
How to adjust the idle speed?
A: engine idle speed adjustment method: when the engine idle speed is unstable, it should be adjusted when the engine temperature is normal, oil and circuit are trouble-free. Use a screwdriver (commonly known as a screwdriver, screwdriver) to slowly release the throttle opening adjustment screw. When the engine is about to turn off, slightly screw it in to keep the engine running. Adjust the idle mixture adjustment screw. Turn the engine to speed. (3) turn the valve again to adjust the opening, to achieve idling speed work stability, both accelerate not flameout.
39. How to test the working condition of each cylinder of the engine by cutting off the starter?
Answer: after the ignition of a cylinder is disconnected with the driver, when the engine operation has no change, the cylinder can be identified as working or working poorly.
What faults often occur in ignition systems?
Answer: the ignition system fault of gasoline engine is generally: low voltage circuit breaker, low voltage short circuit, low voltage fire weak, ignition disorder, ignition time is not timing.

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